Table 1

Baseline patient characteristics

CharacteristicGroup; no. (%)p value
ICS, n = 186Control, n = 203
Age ≥ 70 yr76 (40.9)82 (40.4)0.93
Female sex40 (21.51)56 (27.6)0.16
BMI0.37
 < 2540 (21.5)37 (18.2)
 25–2979 (42.5)79 (38.9)
 ≥ 3067 (36.0)87 (42.9)
Smoking history117 (62.9)134 (66.0)0.52
Diabetes66 (35.5)74 (36.5)0.84
Dyslipidemia135 (72.6)150 (73.9)0.77
Renal failure6 (3.2)12 (5.9)0.21
Hypertension136 (73.1)148 (72.9)0.96
COPD19 (10.2)24 (11.8)0.61
Peripheral vascular disease24 (12.9)28 (13.8)0.80
Cerebrovascular disease19 (10.2)27 (13.3)0.35
MI ≤ 21 d54 (29.0)51 (25.1)0.39
Congestive heart failure34 (18.3)46 (22.7)0.29
Angina
 None39 (21.0)74 (36.5)< 0.001
 Stable51 (27.4)68 (33.5)
 Unstable96 (51.6)61 (30.1)
Atrial fibrillation26 (14.0)32 (15.8)0.62
Medications
 ASA160 (86.0)174 (85.7)0.93
 ACE inhibitors98 (52.7)123 (60.6)0.12
 β blockers145 (78.0)144 (70.9)0.11
 Cholesterol-lowing agents154 (82.8)155 (76.4)0.12
NYHA IV121 (65.0)84 (41.4)< 0.001
EF < 40%19 (10.2)19 (9.4)0.78
Operative status0.032
 Elective73 (39.3)102 (50.3)
 Urgent113 (60.8)101 (49.8)
  • ACE = angiotensin converting–enzyme; ASA = acetylsalicylic acid; BMI = body mass index; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; EF = ejection fraction; lCS = intraoperative cell salvage; MI = myocardial infarction; NYHA = New York Heart Association.