Table 1

Clavien–Dindo classification of surgical complications (13)

IAny deviation from the normal postoperative course without the need for pharmacological treatment or surgical, endoscopic and radiologic interventions.
Acceptable therapeutic regimens are drugs, such as antiemetics, antipyretics, analgesics, diuretics and electrolytes, and physiotherapy.
This grade also includes wound infections opened at the bedside.
IIRequires pharmacological treatment with drugs other than those allowed for grade I complications. Blood transfusions, antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition are also included.
IIIRequires surgical, endoscopic or radiological intervention.
IIIaIntervention under regional/local anesthesia.
IIIbIntervention under general anesthesia.
IVLife-threatening complication requiring intensive care/intensive care unit management.
IVaSingle-organ dysfunction.
IVbMultiorgan dysfunction.
VPatient demise.