Table 1

Baseline demographic characteristics of study cohort (n = 215)

Characteristic% of patients*
Mean age (and SD), y44.5 (18.8)
Male sex59
Highest education
 College or university38
 Secondary school50
 Grade school12
Fractures
 Upper extremity37
 Lower extremity54
 Spine4
 Pelvis3
Soft tissue trauma2
Multitrauma5
Open fracture11
Operatively managed56
Employment status
 Currently employed62
 Disability claim24
 Ongoing litigation or lawyer involved14
Smoking history43
 Median pack-years14
Alcohol consumption51
 Median drinks per wk3
Technical aspects of fracture reduction
 Deemed successful94
Time since injury (and range)6 mo (1 wk–18 y)
  • SD = standard deviation.

  • * Unless otherwise indicated.