Table 1

Preoperative demographics and presenting clinical features

VariablePatients; no. (%)*p value
All, n = 254Without dysphagia, n = 124With dysphagia, n = 130
Age, mean (SD) yr64.5 (12.6)63.5 (13.0)65.4 (12.1)0.22
Male sex176 (69.3)85 (68.5)91 (70.0)0.80
Smoker36 (14.2)19 (15.4)17 (13.1)0.52
Ex-smoker116 (45.7)51 (41.5)65 (50.0)0.23
Family history of heart disease117 (46.1)54 (43.9)63 (49.2)0.43
Diabetes risks
 Insulin-controlled diabetes mellitus18 (7.1)7 (5.6)11 (8.5)0.51
 Oral hypoglycemics47 (18.5)21 (16.9)26 (20.0)0.52
Cardiovascular surgical risks
 Circulatory shock16 (6.3)5 (4.0)11 (8.5)0.15
 Non–Q-wave infarction35 (13.8)21 (16.9)14 (10.8)0.10
 Q-wave infarction28 (11.0)14 (11.3)14 (10.8)0.89
 Left ventricular grade
  172 (28.3)38 (30.6)34 (26.4)0.16
  274 (29.1)41 (33.1)33 (25.6)0.16
  368 (26.8)32 (25.8)36 (27.9)0.16
  439 (15.4)13 (10.5)26 (20.2)0.16
 NYHA classification
  I13 (5.1)5 (4.0)8 (6.2)0.71
  II22 (8.7)11 (8.9)11 (8.5)0.71
  III67 (26.4)30 (24.2)37 (28.5)0.71
  IV152 (59.8)78 (62.9)74 (56.9)0.71
 Congestive heart failure124 (48.8)51 (41.1)73 (56.2)0.017
 Hypertension139 (54.7)71 (57.3)68 (52.3)0.43
 Diet- or medically-treated hyperlipidemia146 (57.5)75 (60.5)71 (54.6)0.34
 Previous stroke or transient ischemic heart attack33 (13.0)17 (13.7)16 (12.3)0.74
 Normal sinus rhythm214 (84.3)108 (87.1)106 (81.5)0.22
 Heart block / pacemaker8 (3.1)4 (3.2)4 (3.1)0.95
 Atrial fibrillation or flutter32 (12.6)12 (9.7)20 (15.4)0.11
 Left main artery stenosis48 (18.9)24 (19.4)24 (18.5)0.86
Respiratory risks
 Severe COPD§15 (5.9)7 (5.7)8 (6.3)0.85
Renal risks
 Serum creatinine, mean (SD) μmol/L110.0 (73.6)109.9 (86.8)110.1 (58.5)0.98
  • COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NYHA = New York Heart Association; SD = standard deviation.

  • * Unless otherwise indicated.

  • Missing value: 1 patient without dysphagia.

  • Missing value: 1 patient with dysphagia.

  • § Missing value: 1 patient without dysphagia and 2 patients with dysphagia.